Installation of efficient water fittings

Guest areas are defined as guest rooms, public toilet and gym/spa changing areas within accommodation enterprises. The installation of efficient water fittings selected through green procurement is the most effective approach, owing to the high saving potential of more efficient fitting types and the relatively high frequency of replacement.

Table below provides an overview of the main fittings that may be installed to reduce water consumption, and their applicability. Selection of the most efficient fittings during construction or renovation offers high saving potential.








Thermostatic mix valves


(Renovation) Thermostatic mixer valves are fitted during shower installation, and adjust the ratio of hot to cold water to ensure a constant temperature, potentially reducing water wastage during temperature adjustment.


Up to 3 L per shower(*)




Push-button timers


(Renovation) Push-button timers are mechanically operated by a pinhole within a diaphragm, and close after up to 30 seconds.

27 L per shower**

Spa and pool areas, hostels, campsites


Water recirculation

A pump recirculates water collected in a deep shower basin to an overhead rainshowerhead via an electric heater, activated by the user closing the drainage valve in the shower basin.

27 L per shower**





(Renovation) New low-flush gravity toilets with optimised cistern and bowl designs use between four and six litres per full flush.

6 L per full flush

Universal, when fitting new toilets


Delayed action inlet valve


Delayed action inlet valves delay inflow into the cistern until the outflow valve is closed, reducing flush volumes by up to one litre

Up to one L per flush

Older high-volume cisterns



(Renovation) Cisterns with siphon valves instead of simple push ('flap') valves controlling water flow into the bowl are more expensive but less prone to leakage.

Up to 150 L/day(***)




(Renovation) Pressure-assisted toilets can either use a sealed plastic tank containing pressurised air separated by a rubber diaphragm to maintain supply pressure, or an adjustable volume-control valve that directly feeds off the pressurised water supply to flush the bowl (at least 3/4 inch pipe and 2 bar pressure required). These are particularly suitable in heavily used public toilets

Up to 8 L per flush



Spray taps

(Renovation) Spray taps integrate flow regulators and aerators with a spray pattern that maximises wetting effectiveness and flow perception, enabling flow rates as low as 2 L/min.

Up to 80 % reduction in flow rate



Self-closing taps

(Renovation) Self-closing valves are activated by a simple push-button or passive infra-red sensor, and are mechanically controlled to close after one to 30 seconds. They can be installed on taps in public areas and in showers in lower grades of accommodation to reduce flow times.


Spa and pool areas, public toilets, staff toilets, hostels and campsites

Baths and basins

Low volume designs

Select low volume basins with optimised design basins, and bath tubs (e.g. body shaped) where necessary, for installation. Accounting for an average body volume of 70 L, low-volume baths require 60 L to fill compared with up to 230 L for some baths.

Up to 170 L per bath



Low-flush urinals



Low-flush urinals require a maximum of 1.5 L per flush, and may be bought new or installed through retrofitting of existing urinal cisterns to reduce flush volume as described for toilets (above).

Up to 3 L per flush


Public toilets (and staff facilities) in hotels and restaurants, toilets in hostels and campsites


Waterless urinals

Waterless urinals may be bought new or installed through the retrofitting of existing urinal systems. Waterless urinals are designed to drain urine with no flushing while maintaining hygienic conditions and containing odours, using either: (i) a spring-loaded flap; (ii) a layer of oil floating on the surface of the trap liquid; (iii) plastic pads impregnated with chemicals to destroy bacteria and odours, inserted into the S-bend; (iv) weak negative pressure in the waste pipe induced by a small fan.




Flush timing


Various mechanisms can be installed to control the timing of flushes, including detection devices based on infrared sensors or hydraulic valves, user-operated valves, or timers set at regular intervals during operating hours (as few as four flushes per day may be acceptable).


Up to 300 m3 per urinal per year



Environmental benefits

  • Energy savings

Installation of efficient fittings reduces also energy costs where consumption of heated water is reduced (showers and basin taps).

  • Water savings

New low-flush toilets are available with flush volumes of four litres for a full, urinals are available that do not require any water for flushing, taps are available with flow rates as low as two litres per minute and showerheads are available with flow rates as low as five litres per minute.


Reduced costs

Installation of efficient fittings reduces water supply and disposal costs depending on the reduction rates achieved.

Eco map